The STEPHEN HAWKING – A GREATEST PHYSICIST
The world known scientist Stephen Hawking was an English theoretical physicist, cosmologist and author and Director of Research at the Center for Theoretical Cosmology within the University of Cambridge. His key discovery was focusing on the evolution of the universe. He also knew for the study of Black Holes. With the theoretical prediction that black holes emit radiation, a theory called ‘Hawking radiation.’ Hawking had a rare early-onset slow-progressing form of motor neuron disease (also known as Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis, “ALS”) that gradually paralyzed him over the decades. In between this disease he was lost his speech even after he still able to communicate through Speech Generating Device. Hawking was almost spent their 55 years of the life span in the wheelchair but he don’t give up and continue their research in various fields even after paralyzed. He was a big inspiration to the whole world.
Stephen Hawking Childhood
Stephen Hawking was born on January 8, 1942, in Oxford, England, to Frank and Isobel Hawking. His father was a medical researcher. He belonged to a family of well educated people. His mother was one of the first female students to have graduated from the Oxford University. He was borne during the World War II and he was the eldest children out of the four children’s. Hawking’s father wanted him to become a doctor but Hawking was interested in astronomy. He attended St. Albans School but he was not interested in studying. He always wants to inventing new things outside the classroom. He was never a brilliant student. Later, against his father’s wishes, he planned to pursue mathematics as his major but as the subject was not taught in Oxford University at the time; he had to take up physics and chemistry instead. Regardless he didn’t give careful consideration to the learned things and invested his energy to devising innovative techniques. In 1962, he graduated with honors, and went on to attend the University of Cambridge for a Ph.D. in cosmology. During his first year his body started to show abnormal physical symptoms he would suddenly trip and fall, and his speech slurred. After doing some test he was diagnosed that he was in the early stages of Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis (ALS), which meant that the part of his nervous system responsible for muscle control was closing down — a life threatening condition. The doctor said that he had only two more years to live. Hawking realized his condition and started concentrating fully on his research work.
Personnel Life Of Stephen Hawking
Hawking’s had a two wife’s. He met his first wife, Jane Wilde, a friend of his sister, shortly before the diagnosis of his disease and they got married in 1965. They had three children together: Robert, Lucy, and Timothy. During the late 1980, Hawking had a romantic affair with one of his nurses, Elaine Manson, and left Jane for her. He divorced Jane and married Manson in 1995. It was suspected or it was rumor that Elaine was abusing him physically, but Hawking denied it. He divorced Elaine Manson in 2006. Hawking’s physical condition more and more began to get worse. He could no longer drive his wheelchair; he required a ventilator at times and was hospitalized several times since 2009. He was closely working with researchers on systems that could translate his brain patterns into switch activation’s. Stephen Hawking died peacefully at his home in Cambridge, England, on Wednesday, March 14, 2018, at the age of 76. He always told his children’s that ‘Never look to your feet always look to the stars.’ he lives a great life.
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Carrier of Stephen Hawking
Hawking became a member of the Institute of Astronomy in Cambridge in 1968 and the discoveries of cosmologist, Roger Penrose; on ‘Black Hole’ really enthralled him as he himself was working on the phenomena that was responsible for the origin of the Universe.
In 1970, Hawking discovered the ‘Second Law of Black Hole Dynamics.’ According to it the event horizon of a black hole can never get smaller.
In 1973, he come up with ‘Hawking Radiation’ and he became a ‘Fellow of the Royal Society.’
He started to get more appreciation for his research and discoveries during his print and TV interviews, and in 1975, he was awarded the Eddington Medal and the Pius XI Gold Medal, followed by the Dannie Heinemann Prize and the Maxwell Prize.
In 1997, he was appointed as a professor with a chair in gravitational physics and received the ‘Albert Einstein Medal’ and an honorary doctorate from the University of Oxford.
In 1979, he appointed as the Lucasian Professor of Mathematics at the Cambridge University even after he lose control on his speech.
In 1982, Hawking and Gary Gibbons organized a Nuffield Workshop on the topic ‘The Very Early Universe’ at Cambridge University, which focused principally on the cosmological inflation theory.
The ‘Hartle-Hawking state’ model published by him with Jim Hartle, which stated that before the Big Bang, time did not exist and the concept of the beginning of the universe is meaningless.
In 1985, he lost his voice after a tracheotomy. Because of this, he required 24-hour care. His condition caught attention of a Californian computer programmer, who invented a speaking program that might be directed by head or eye movement.
In 1998 he was published a book ‘A Brief History of Time’ and after that Hawking gained the international prominence for the first time. The book was meant to be a simplified version of cosmology for the masses and became an instant bestseller.
In 1993, he published a collected edition of his own articles on black holes and his series of lectures were published as ‘The Nature of Space and Time’ and co-edited a book on Euclidean quantum gravity with Gary Gibbons
In 1993 also published a collection of essays, interviews and talk titled ‘Black Holes and Baby Universes and Other Essays.’ It was followed by a six-part television series ‘Stephen Hawking’s Universe’ and a companion book.
He wrote a easy to read books in his carrier was ‘The Universe in Nutshell’ (2001) , which was followed by, ‘A Brief History of Time’(2005), ‘God Created the Integers’ (2006), ‘God’s Secret Key to the Universe’ (2007), etc.
During this period he also appeared on television in various documentaries like – ‘The Real Stephen Hawking’ (2001), ‘Stephen Hawking: Profile’ (2002), ‘Hawking’ (2004), ‘Stephen Hawking, Master of the Universe’ (2008), etc.
In 2009, he was retired as a Lucasian Professor of Mathematics. He also continued to work as a director of research at the Department of Applied Mathematics and Theoretical Physics. His most important work is assumed to be the study of ‘Black Holes.”
Awards and Accomplishments
In 1982,Stephen Hawking became a ‘Commander of the Order of the British Empire‘. He was later honored with many impressive awards like ‘the Gold Medal of the Royal Astronomical Society,’ ‘the Paul Dirac Medal,’ etc. He honored Other famous awards including ‘the Wolf Prize,’ ‘Companion of Honor by Her Highness,’ ‘Julius Edgar Lilienfeld Prize,’ ‘the Copley Medal,’ ‘the Presidential Medal of Freedom,’ ‘the Russian Fundamental Physics Prize,’ etc.
QUICK FACTS ABOUT STEPHEN HAWKING
|Also known as||Stephen William Hawking|
|Famous as||Theoretical Physicist, Cosmologist|
|Born on||08 January 1942 AD|
|Place of Birth||Oxford|
|Died on||14 March 2018 AD|
|Place of Death||Cambridge, England|
|Siblings||Edward Hawking, Philippa Hawking, Mary Hawking|
|Wife||Jane Wilde(First), Elaine Manson(Second)|
|Children’s||Lucy Hawking, Timothy Hawking, Robert Hawking|
|Education||St Albans School, Hertfordshire|
St Albans High School for girls
University of Oxford (1959-1962)
Trinity Hall, Cambridge (1962-1966)
|Awards||1966 – Adams Prize|
1975 – Eddington Medal
1976 – Hughes medal, Dannie Heineman prize for Mathematical Physics
1978 – Albert Einstein Award
1979 – Albert Einstein Medal
1982 – Commander of the Order of the British
1985 – Gold Medal of Royal Astronomical Society
1987 – Dirac Medal of the Institute of Physics
1988 – Wolf prize in Physics
1989 – Princess of Asturias Award of Concord
2006 – Copley Medal
2008 – Fonseca Prize
2009 – Presidential Medal of Freedom
2013 – Special Breakthrough Prize in Fundamental Physics, Franklin Medal , Maxwell Medal and Prize
|Publications||Black Holes and Baby Universes and Other Essays|
The Universe in Nutshell (2001)
A Brief History of Time (2005)
God Created the Integers (2006)
God’s Secret Key to the Universe (2007)
|Documentaries||The Real Stephen Hawking (2001)|
Stephen Hawking: Profile’ (2002)
Stephen Hawking, Master of the Universe’ (2008)
The greatest enemy of knowledge is not ignorance,
it is the illusion of knowledge – Stephen Hawking
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